Meteorite sites

Most nights of the year, if you are sitting looking up into a reasonably unpolluted night sky, there’s a reasonably good chance that you may see a shooting star – a meteoroid burning up in the Earth’s upper atmosphere. There are some nights where the likelihood of such an event is increased due to the Earth passing through the remains of comet debris deposited at particular points on Earth’s annual orbit of the sun. Good examples of such meteor showers being the Perseids, Geminids, Orionids, Leonids, Lyrids, all named after the constellation in which they appear. [Wikipedia info]

Occasionally, if it is big enough to survive, some of the celestial debris floating about the solar system makes it all the way through Earth’s atmosphere and lands on terra firma … with a thump!

Such thumps are not from the aforementioned comet debris, which is too small and not dense enough to survive an encounter with Earth’s atmosphere.

Instead, the thumps have originated from the asteroid field. Contrary to what Hollywood may have you think, with images of the Millennium Falcon twisting and turning through an asteroid field, our Solar System’s asteroid field is very sparsely populated. This is on account of the total mass of the field representing only a third of the mass of the Moon. Consider also that the asteroid field sits in an orbit between Mars and Jupiter and has a width of about 1.5 times the distance between the Earth and the Sun. That’s not a lot of material to spread around what is a vast orbital area! As a consequence, all the probes sent thus far to investigate the far reaches of the solar system have passed through the belt unscathed.

Nonetheless, when asteroids are pinged out from the asteroid field, possibly by the perturbations of Jupiter’s enormous gravity field, they can very occasionally, over the course of millennia, end up crossing the path of Earth.

In the 9th of June issue of the Journal of the Geological Society Kenneth Amor (Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford), broke the news that the largest meteorite impact in the British Isles, dating back to 1.2 billion years, had been identified off the NW coast of Scotland, about 20km due west of Lochinver in the Minch [article link]. The diameter of the crater is expected to be between 15 to 20 kilometres, resulting from the impact of an asteroid measuring between 1.5 – 2km across.

Not so far away to the east lies the village of Lairg, a place I’ve stopped at a handful of times for a morning bacon buttie before venturing out to nearby Munros. Little did I know at the time that this also sits near the centre of a gravity low, and that geologists now consider this to possibly be as a result of a buried impact crater which is some 40km in diameter. [Article in the Journal of the Geological Society]

Regional geology of northern Scotland showing the outcrop of the Stoer Group and its relationship to the residual gravity field (contoured at 2 mGal intervals; from Rollin 2009) for the Lairg Gravity Low. Arrows indicate directional azimuths within the Stac Fada Member (from Simms 2015). Michael J. Simms, and Kord Ernstson Journal of the Geological Society 2019;jgs © 2019 The Author(s). Published by The Geological Society of London. All rights reserved.

So that’s two, near to home, impact craters that I learned about in June alone. Which got me thinking as to where other significantly large asteroid craters or meteorites can be found. Google maps here we come!

Near Newton Wold, in Yorkshire, owing to how small the meteorite was (25kg), there is no semblance of an impact crater. Instead a monument was erected by a certain Edward Topham. Although small in stature, in many ways the Wold Cottage Meteor impact was tremendous, kick-starting as it did the legitimisation of the idea of “stones falling from the heavens”. Up until this point, meteorites were seen by the learned classes as the babblings of superstitious peasants, and that any stones falling from the skies were the result of volcanic eruptions, or stones which had simply been struck by lightening.

Once the idea of stones falling from the heavens started to become legitimised, the old yarns from the common folk were taken more seriously and the learned folk also started seeing what had hitherto been hidden in plain sight. By way of example, the town of Nodlingen, in Bavaria, actually sits near the middle of a 24km impact crater known as Nördlinger Ries

Invariably, when these meteorites impact the Earth, they fragment and what remains is very small indeed. However, the Hoba meteorite, located to the east of Namibia’s Etosha Park near Grootfontein, is the largest known intact meteorite weighing in at an estimated 60 tonnes. It is also the most massive naturally occurring piece of iron known on Earth’s surface.

Then there is possibly the most well known impact crater of all. Situated near Flagstaff in Arizona, off interstate 44 can be found the Barringer impact crater.

Overshadowing all of these, and measuring in at 150km in diameter, the daddy of them all is the Chicxulub crater, buried under the Yucatan peninsula in Mexico. This is thought by many to be the root cause of the mass extinction event on the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary (K–Pg boundary), slightly less than 66 million years ago, which saw the demise of the dinosaurs.

However, there is a growing body of evidence, led by professor Gerta Keller, which suggests that the Chicxulub impact happened 300,000 years too soon…

The alternative theory put forward by Keller and her supporters centres around the massive volcanic eruptions that lasted as much as 30 – 40,000 years in the Deccan Traps in India. Here the lavas are 2km thick and cover half a million square kilometres, and their outpourings coincided exactly with the end of the Cretaceous extinctions.

The aforementioned events, and many more besides plus background information as to their origins are covered in a book I recently read entitled Incoming!: Or, Why We Should Stop Worrying and Learn to Love the Meteorite by Ted Nield.

The book is not too bad a read, with the majority of the chapters being informative and well written, and from which much information can be gleaned as you find yourself effortlessly gliding through the pages. Other chapters, such as the beginning of part two entitled Target – Earth, are very stuttering in their delivery, hindered for the most part by a very erratic timeline in and around the French revolution and the start of the science of geology itself.

Reading Incoming! and happening upon the reference to the Scottish impact craters elsewhere, reminded me that I have a book that covers Scotland’s mountain environment which has been sitting on a bookshelf unread for a few years now.

This is now sitting on the “to read” pile!

The Future of Humanity

No, I’m not getting all beard stroking, navel gazing and blue sky thinking! The title of this post equates to the book title of Michio Kaku’s future gazing book, which covers topics such as terraforming Mars, interstellar travel, immortality and our destiny beyond Earth.

At this point, I should point out that the timeline of this blog is somewhat out of whack, because I read this book prior to reading Carlo Revelli’s book, Seven Lessons in Physics. In comparison, Michio’s book is somewhat disappointing. for two reasons.

Firstly, Michio is somebody that I’ve encountered over the years in many a BBC documentary. Primarily, Horizon documentaries (when Horizon was good – less thematic, and more hard facts). Michio is a professor at City University of New York, and one of the co-founders of string theory, and this isn’t his first book. Thus, in my book, he is a known entity, a kent face, a good chap, he has gravitas. However, reflecting the route taken by the BBC with Horizon, the book turned out to be somewhat dumbed down. The book didn’t deliver what I expected of Michio.

Secondly, and worse still, from the perspective of somebody who is a bit of a geek and has followed a wide spectrum of science related subjects for decades (yes, I do very much like my tech and science!), in reading this book I discovered nothing new.

Throughout, I found myself willing myself to continue to read the book in the belief/hope that it would get better. All the time, I was somewhat frustrated in that I found myself knowing more about some of the subject matter and asking myself, when is he going to mention “X” … and disappointingly, Michio never did. And, I should point out, that’s not because events have subsequently overtaken the book – I have taken into account the book’s publication date.

The book also suffers from being just a bit too whimsical and, dare I say it, erm … starry eyed at some points.

If you’re somebody to whom the subjects covered are all new (why would you be reading this blog … ?), then perhaps this book would be an eye opener. I’m sure that as a teenager, eager to soak up all the science/tech latest, I would gorge myself on the book’s contents.

As it is, I’m no a newbie to the subjects covered, so this book gets a C-

America City

Arthur C Clarke Award winning author is what the book cover if America City proclaims … before telling you who the author is (Chris Beckett) … and then the title of the book. That order is significant, because Mr Beckett certainly didn’t win the award for this piece of fiction.

That perhaps sounds a bit harsh, and granted America City is quite good at extrapolating where we are at present, with regards to technology and the ecology of the Earth, and fast forwarding a century or so hence.

Also, from the perspective of where politics sits and seems to be heading, America City is a bit of food for thought in terms the wall across the border between Mexico and the USA, and all the hoo-ha that Trump stirs up.

Nonetheless, I found America City uninspiring and unsurprising. The story line and the characters were predicable. The final chapters had an inevitability about them and the hoped for twist just never transpired.

Nevertheless, America City was still good enough to make me feel inclined to hunt down Mr Beckett’s award winning novel Dark Eden.

7 Brief Lesson on Physics

Continuing on the recent theme of books about the cosmos/astronomy/physics, I read Seven Brief Lessons on Physics by Carlo Rovelli while having a long soak in the bath – for reasons that I’m about to explain, the bath didn’t take as long as you may think, and I certainly did not look prune-like by the end of!

My initial impressions of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics were not favourable. Firstly, the book is very short – a skinny, seventy-nine pages of large print. If it were fiction, it would be described as a short story/novella. Since I was expecting something which was going to be hard science, I didn’t get “into it” immediately. Initially it struck me that the target audience was those who are not of a scientific bent; more arty and those that would opt to read the literary, rather than the technology, supplement of their Sunday newspaper. But, once I’d switched mindset, the cadence of the Seven Brief Lessons on Physics really started to sing to me.

Key points were the non-linear view of time, and also how “now” doesn’t really exist, and that concepts of time can be very localised. For instance, how “now” and localised time on Earth versus their equivalents on Jupiter or Alpha Centuri (four hours and four light years away respectively) can all be very different indeed. It is how time is perceived by the individual.

Furthermore, there is the notion that time is akin to entropy, where apparently chaotic like states are seen to be ordered (past & present), but only based on the order projected upon the subject of the entropic state of time by the viewer. Analogous to bolts ordered/separated by their colour vs the colour blind person who sees chaos since they perceive order based on bolt size!

In addition, how loop quantum gravity might be able to tie general relativity, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics together. Furthermore, that the Rosetta stone of these dislocated theories might be black holes. This is because an infinite state is not logical and also that thermodynamics dictates that a changed state in entropy must omit energy, thus Hawking radiation must be present.

Once you’ve read the book, a very good piece of follow-up material is a Royal Institute lecture by the man himself, Carlo Rovelli, which focuses in on the subject of time itself.